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Booting Linux in single user mode

  1. Restart the system , wait till grub appears.
  2. Select the kernel you want to boot into and press e to enter into edit mode.
  3. Edit the line which starts with kernel , some thing like this
          kernel /boot/vmlinuz-X.X.X.X.X. ro root=LABEL=/ rhgb quiet
     4. Add keyword 'single' at the end of the line and press enter to exit edit mode.
     5. Now select the kernel and press b to boot into single usermode.


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How to find firmware or boot ROM version in Mac OS X

Firmware and boot ROM version of your mac can be found in two ways.
Way 1 :
1. From "Apple" menu , choose "About This Mac" menu item. 2. Click " More Info " to open "System Profiler" application. 3. Under Contents -> Select Hardware Tree item.
On the right side panel Under hardware overview section, we can see Boot ROM Version and SMC (Firmware) Version.

Way 2 :
Run the below command in terminal to get boot ROM version and SMC(firmware) version :
$ system_profiler SPHardwareDataType | grep -i "Version" | awk -F ':' '{print $1 $2}'

How to boot into recovery mode on mac without holding Command + R Key on keyboard ?

Generally well known method to boot the mac into recovery mode is by holding the Command + R on keyboard while mac is turned on. However you can force the mac to boot into recovery mode upon next reboot by changing the nvram setting. To do that, Run below command.  

sudo nvram "recovery-boot-mode=unused" sudo reboot